鲁迅走了,孔夫子回来了–二十世纪那个叫革命的坏小子终于死了 – Out with Luxun and in with Confucius – That 20th century scamp who called for revolution is finally dead

曾经何时,曾经被中国革命请进了历史垃圾堆的孔老夫子又重新回到了主流社会中,大众对读经的热爱俨然已经超过了对成功学鸡汤的热情。这是不是代表中国社会已经逐渐摆脱了对金钱和物质利益的崇拜,而转向对心灵宁静和道德伦理的追求呢?

今天在家里随便扫了几眼电视,看到中央电视台在放一则公益广告,大致意思是一个年轻人带着女朋友回家,然后家族的族长向大家宣布:“列为宗亲,从今以后她就是我们家族的一员了。”在这种温情脉脉的面纱下面,我仿佛又看到了在农村消逝已久的鲁老太爷的形象。我很好奇,如果作为族长的这位老人不认同这对年轻人的婚姻,那会是一个什么样的景象?

毛泽东在《湖南农民运动考察报告》中曾经将政权、族权、神权、夫权这四种权力作为全部封建宗法的思想和制度的代表,而如今,曾经作为革命对象的传统宗族观念开始以正面形象重新出现于主流意识形态话语中。既然宗族的观念卷土重来,那么作为宗族权力象征的祠堂、家法,还有三从四德、三纲五常、包办婚姻、裹脚布要不要一并请回来呢?(好多已经请回来了)

在中央级的喉舌媒体上出现这样的“公益”广告并不是偶然的,这是当前意识形态导向的一个缩影。曾几何时,被新文化运动扫进历史垃圾堆的孔夫子又重新成了香饽饽,读经崇儒成了跟快男超女一样火爆的热潮。电视上、网络上、大街上的“经学大师”一抓一大把,甭管读没读过懂没懂你要不跟人拽两句弟子规都不要意思说自己你认识字读过书。大街小巷又开始挂满了“二十四孝”的宣传画,那个曾经让鲁迅先生对自己的奶奶长期怀有恐惧之心的郭巨埋儿的故事如今又被道学家们翻出来,用来离间小朋友和爷爷奶奶的关系,美其名曰“弘扬孝道”。在五四运动的冲击下冷落了大半个世纪的孔庙近些年来又重新热闹起来,每年举行的祭孔大典让人仿佛有恍若隔世之感。萧瑟秋风今又是,只不过是换了人间。

孔庙这个地方,经历了两千年的风雨沧桑,迎接过唐宗宋祖,送走过蒙古人满洲人,就连在中国杀人如麻的日本人,都不忘到孔老夫子面前磕个头烧个香。曾经在中国革命中失魂落魄的丧家犬孔老二,如今又重新恢复了大成至圣先师的地位和风采。二十世纪的中国革命以“打到孔家店”为起点,以孔老夫子的重新逆袭为终结,一切仿佛又回到了原点。

很多人只是把孔子的思想理解成父慈子孝、尊敬师长这些文明美德,这就图样图森破了。这样的理解只是把孔子看做成了一个唠唠叨叨调解家庭矛盾的居委会大妈,这就太贬低孔子了。父慈子孝这些家庭美德,不用读孔老夫子那些老掉牙的经书,就是没读过几本书的居委会大妈都会跟你娓娓道来。这样的大妈怎么能够配得上大成至圣先师的谥号、被历代的统治者崇奉千年而不倒?

主张读经的人,大抵都是聪明人。这些聪明人肯定不至于如此之蠢,把出演八点档家庭伦理剧作为他们人生的主要事业,培养出忠君爱国的孝子烈女才是他们的终极理想。可是这些聪明人中能有多少人变成经书里宣扬的孝子忠臣,是很值得怀疑的。鲁迅先生翻了很多专夸本地人物的地方志,发现男的孝子和忠臣是不多的,只有节烈的妇女的名册却大抵有一大卷以至几卷,不禁哀叹,“孔子之徒的经,真不知读到那里去了;倒是不让字的妇女们能实践。”明亡之后,孔夫子的好徒弟钱谦益和失足妇女柳如是一起相约跳湖殉明,本来是一件顶浪漫的事情,才子、佳人、忠臣、烈妇,几样名垂青史的元素都凑齐全了,在史书上肯定能大写一笔。可惜的是,泡惯了秦淮河的热水澡的钱先生发现这儿的水太凉了,就让柳姑娘一个人孤零零跳了下去。孔老夫子的经书读了这么多,节操竟然还不如一个妓女,这些读书人也是蛮拼的。日本侵华之后,原北洋军阀政府里边卖身投靠侵华日军的,大抵是一些饱读经书,尊孔崇儒的满清遗老,反倒是没读过几本经书的草莽汉吴佩孚有几分民族气节。“国学泰斗”季羡林(中国的国学还是印度的国学?)和钱文忠一对师徒为了高扬孔孟之道,在央视的舞台上行三叩九拜大礼,结果季老尸骨未寒,钱大教授就和季老的女秘书陷入了家庭遗产纠纷,在遗体告别仪式上因为一只乌龟大打出手,可谓斯文扫地。这些满嘴仁义道德的人,肚子里有多少男盗女娼,恐怕只有当事人自己知道。

所以鲁迅先生看得很明白,这些主张读经的人,“多是别有用心的”。受过旧文化洗礼的鲁迅太明白尊孔读经的用意了:“他们要人们读经,成为孝子顺民,成为烈女节妇,而自己则可以得意恣志,高高骑在人民头上。”读经的重点不在于培养家庭美德,而在于附着于家庭伦理之上的这样一整套君臣父子的等级秩序,“孔夫子之在中国,是权势者们捧起来的,是那些权势者或想做权势者们的圣人,和一般的民众并无什么关系。”

现代社会之所以需要读经,不是因为缺少孝子和慈父,而是刁民太多了。讨薪的,仇富的,仇官的,被强拆的,被拐进黑煤窑的,找不到工作的,讨不起老婆的,买不起房子的,看不起病的,还有读马列的。中央党校教授周天勇曾向中共中央和教育部建议在高校取消马克思主义的课程,因为“如果学的太多,他们失业了,拿着资本论去农民工的工棚,宣传受剥削压迫理论,将是极大的社会动乱的不稳定因素”。笔者也强烈建议把如今高校里的马克思主义政治课全换成四书五经课,只有读经才能把这些不安分的刁民们全都驯化成听话的忠臣孝子烈女节妇,从而从根源上消除社会不稳定因素,共筑幸福和谐的中国梦。

鲁迅走了,孔夫子回来了。换句话说,二十世纪那个叫做革命的不安分的坏小子终于死了。二十一世纪需要的是秩序,是安分,是顺从,是驯服,是良民,是大大的良民。

In what seems the passing of a moment, Confucius, who was once deposited by revolutionaries into the dust bin of history has made a comeback into mainstream society, and already it seems as if peoples enthusiasm for reading Confucian classics has surpassed their love of soul uplifting self help books. Does this mean that Chinese society is gradually unshackling itself from the worship of money and materialism and is instead turning towards the pursuit of spiritual serenity and morality?

Today while I as at home casually watching some TV, I came across a public interest add on CCTV that portrayed a young guy returning home with his girlfriend, whereupon the family elder declared to the whole family “Kinsman, from today on she will become one of our family members.” Through this veil of sentimentalism, it was almost as if I could see the image of that old grandpa from Lu (Confucius) which had long vanished from rural areas. I was curious, if that old man, being the family elder, did not agree to the marriage of this young couple, what kind of scene would that make?

  In his ‘Report on the observations of peasant movements in Hunan,’Mao Zedong once placed political authority, clan power, theocracy and the authority of the husband as the ideological and systematic representatives of feudal patriarchy. However today it seems that traditional family ideology that once faced the wrath of revolution has begun to reemerge in a positive light within the language of mainstream discourse. Yet with traditional family ideology rising from the ashes,do we really want to see representations of patriarchal authority such as family temples, domestic discipline, or even‘women’s virtue,’exemplary moral behavior, arranged marriages and foot binding cloths come marching back into fashion? (Indeed many have already returned)

  That such a ‘public interest’add would appear on CCTV is indeed no accident, this small segment is itself reflective of the trajectory which contemporary ideology is following. In the historical blink of an eye, Confucius, once placed by the New Cultural Movement into the trash bin of history is now making a sweet comeback, with the reading of Confucian classics and worship of Confucianism riding on a tide of popularity that matches the public’s interest in B grade singing competitions. Whether on TV, on the internet or on the streets, the ‘Master of the Classics’(Confucius)is everywhere to be found, and regardless of whether you have read them or understood them, if you don’t slip in a few lines from the ‘Standards for Students’into everyday conversation you feel almost ashamed to admit that you received an education. All through the streets, billboards promoting pictures of ‘The 24 stories of filial piety,’including the one which made Luxun fear his grandmother for so long, ‘Guoju buries his son,’are once again being propped up by virtue loving moralists, putting a grand name to the estrangement of the relationship between grandchildren and grandparents, ‘Promoting Filial Piety.’Buried in the May 4th avalanche of cold neglect for over half a century, the temple of Confucius is also coming back into to popularity, with each years ritual ceremonies seeing to herald from a different age, as if for two thousand years nothing has changed but the actors performing the play.

   Standing firm through two thousand years of wind and rain, the temple of Confucius was there to welcome in the Tang and Song, and was still there to send off the Mongols and Manchus, even the Chinese butchering Japanese would not forget to do their kowtow’s and burn some incense in front of‘Old Kong’(Confucius). That old homeless dog (Confucius) that once had his soul smashed by China’s revolution has hurtled back to the demeanor and position of‘Great Sage Teacher,’ and thus the twenty century Chinese revolution that began with an attack on the house of Confucius, has now ended with his complete revival, almost as if we have come back to where we had started.

  Many people only think of Confucian ideology as being about virtues such as parental love and filial piety, or respecting teachers and elders, this is really, to put it in the words of Jiang Zemin ‘to young, to naive, to simple.’This understanding places Confucius in the same standing as the gossiping ladies on the neighborhood committee who sort out domestic issues and really does not give him enough credit. You don’t need to read archaic classical texts to know that parental love and filial piety is virtuous,even those aunties on the neighborhood committee who haven’t read a thing could talk about such things for years on end. How could these ladies ever live up to such a (posthumous) title as ‘Great Sage Teacher,’worshiped unswervingly by countless generations of rulers for thousands of years.

  Those people who recommend reading the classics are most likely quite intelligent, and being intelligent people, would definitely not be so stupid as to take the morals and values of their 8 o’clock family TV series as the main goals of their life’s existence. Their ultimate goal is rather to train a generation of sons and daughters to be loyal, patriotic, pious and subservient. Yet are these‘intelligent people’anything like those parent respecting loyal ministers that we find in the classics, most likely not. While Luxun was flipping through the pages of local gazettes that extolled the virtues of the moral people in the local area, he discovered that parent loving loyal males were a rarity, and instead it was the virtues of chaste female martyrs that made up one if not more chapters in the gazette. Unable to prevent a sigh, he remarked that he did not know what had happened to those Confucian classics that the men had read, as in the end, it seemed that only illiterate women were able to put them into practice. After the fall of the Ming dynasty, one of Confucius’ great followers, Qian Qianyi and his fallen consort Liu Ru agreed to drown themselves in a lake, sacrificing themselves for the dynasty they had lost. Originally this was going to be quite a romantic event, (one talented man, one lovely lady, one a loyal minister the other a female martyr), one that would definitely get them a place in history books, however unfortunately, used to soaking in the warmer waters of the Qinhuai river, Mr Qian decided that the water was a little too cold and let Ms Liu jump in alone. Even after having read so many of Confucian classics, it seems that his virtue was even lower than that of a courtesan, these scholars really are something. After the Japanese invasion of China, the previous standing Northern Warlord government who surrendered to the Japanese army were on the whole, a bunch of Confucian worshiping, classic reading Manchu remnants, and in the end it turned out to be the uneducated Han, Wu Peifu, who provided a bit of national fighting spirit. In order to promote the teachings of Confucius and Mencius, the leading authority on Chinese Classics, Ji Xianlin (Was it Chinese classics or Indian Classics) and Qian Wenzhong went on CCTV and kowtowed and bowed, and yet just after Mr Ji passed on, Professor Qian ended up in a dispute with Mr Ji’s secretary over his inheritance. At the funeral, angst over a turtle turned into a fight, and thus these high and mighty moralists showed their animal nature. With a mouth full of virtue and benevolence,how many of these moralists are really thieves and prostitutes in disguise, in the end only they themselves know.

  所以鲁迅先生看得很明白,这些主张读经的人,“多是别有用心的”。受过旧文化洗礼的鲁迅太明白尊孔读经的用意了:“他们要人们读经,成为孝子顺民,成为烈女节妇,而自己则可以得意恣志,高高骑在人民头上。”读经的重点不在于培养家庭美德,而在于附着于家庭伦理之上的这样一整套君臣父子的等级秩序,“孔夫子之在中国,是权势者们捧起来的,是那些权势者或想做权势者们的圣人,和一般的民众并无什么关系。”

  现代社会之所以需要读经,不是因为缺少孝子和慈父,而是刁民太多了。讨薪的,仇富的,仇官的,被强拆的,被拐进黑煤窑的,找不到工作的,讨不起老婆的,买不起房子的,看不起病的,还有读马列的。中央党校教授周天勇曾向中共中央和教育部建议在高校取消马克思主义的课程,因为“如果学的太多,他们失业了,拿着资本论去农民工的工棚,宣传受剥削压迫理论,将是极大的社会动乱的不稳定因素”。笔者也强烈建议把如今高校里的马克思主义政治课全换成四书五经课,只有读经才能把这些不安分的刁民们全都驯化成听话的忠臣孝子烈女节妇,从而从根源上消除社会不稳定因素,共筑幸福和谐的中国梦。

  鲁迅走了,孔夫子回来了。换句话说,二十世纪那个叫做革命的不安分的坏小子终于死了。二十一世纪需要的是秩序,是安分,是顺从,是驯服,是良民,是大大的良民。

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