冉按：“富二代”的争论尚未止息，“官二代”带给中国民众的震惊与愤怒，正在逐步蔓延，社会各界应该对这种现象有更多的讨论与重视。事实上，在我看 来，不只是“官二代”的问题，就连普通的公务员就业，也被官员及其裙带关系所世袭。换言之，公务员这个在经济危机下十分有保障的“铁饭碗”，业已世袭化， 裙带关系所占比重之大，到了令人触目惊心的地步。下面为“纵览中国”网站所写的专栏，就探讨了公务员世袭化的问题，欢迎各位指正。2009年9月2日7：46分于成都
前 不久因为91%的亿万富翁是高干子女之说，《时代周报》与《人民网》掐了起来，前者代表民间的声音，后者则代表了官方的声音。以我之见，显然民间质疑的声 音更为理性更为有理，官方的解释则苍白无力、欲盖弥彰。太子党在当下中国政治经济活动中的横行霸道，权势熏天，由来已久，正所谓冰冻三尺，非一日之寒。 “枪杆子里面出政权”，打江山的坐江山，这样的政权更替理论，注定了官方把政权当成一党一派的私有财产，不可能让他人染指。那种通过民选实现非暴力和平转 变的政权更替方式，因为涉及到如今官员们巨大的不当利益，而成为他们的死敌。
太子党的世袭在政治、经济等领 域十分明显，就是一些油水相对较少的文化领域，也有他们的身影。换言之，只要有利益存在的地方，就有他们无所不在的攫取之手。没有真正有力的制度约束，上 梁不正下梁歪，太子党的世袭风气，已经蔓延到各级政府官员对自己子女的照顾、任用等方面，利用自己的权势来为后代谋取不当之好处。去年本溪提拔的三名团干 部均是该市领导的子女，受到媒体和社会舆论的质疑后，其中一名官员子女孙鸣镝还振振有辞地说：难道官员子女就不可以成才了吗？官员子女是能成才，但官员子 女真是太能成才了，他们因为生在官员家庭，就注定了与无权无势的人相比，他们就是天才。这和龙生龙、凤生凤，耗子生儿会打洞的血统论有什么区别？
官 员子弟世袭当官以及公务员的世袭、公务员考试的猫腻，原来只是暗中行为，现在完全成为无视群众指摘、社会批评的公然行为。原来还需要一块“为人民服务”的 遮羞布，现在连这块这遮羞布都不要了，为了不当的巨大利益而赤膊上阵。黄山公务员考试，官员用政府公车送子女去参加考试，虽然看上去也经过了考试，但就用 公车送子女考试一项，便不难让人浮想联翩。走过场的公务员考试，他们也要显得“与众不同”，不怕暴露自己的身份。官员在维护自己子女不当利益上，是何其热 心和大胆！最近河南固始县任用12位干部，绝大部分是官员子女，组织部长还出来辩解说，我们的程序是合法的。什么程序合法？那程序是谁定的，法是谁定的， 民众认可吗？有公信力吗？现任或卸任干部的子女大摇大摆地“端”上官员位置，民众只知你们是官官相护的结果，是一种世袭特权，哪有什么公开公正公平可言？
“出 仕专为身谋，居官有同贸易。”江西最近有一县父母属正科级的，子女便有一人可以直接进入行政单位工作，父母副科级的则考试加分，或教育部门的可直接到学校 工作。这还不算离谱，更离谱的是领导干部官商勾结，虚造13岁的亲属入编领工资，24岁内退的荒诞戏。官员子弟稍有点才能的，直接为官，实在太傻的，就虚 造其名，直接领钱。官员子弟在钱权中能二者兼得的，是他们最乐意的。就算稍差，权和钱内中能占到一样，也可以实现钱与权的互换，从而实现钱权长期交易，可 永保子女后代成为作威作福的“人上人”。
既然公务员已成为官员或者公务员子女的世袭领地，那么维护公务员的 稳定，自然成了官方基本的政治政策。因为公务员成为官方自家子弟的地盘，自然竭尽全力来剥夺民众利益，把维稳当作头等大事来抓，不管这维稳是如何地滥用公 权力，如何地丧尽天良。这种世袭的官员子弟和公务员们，他们变态而强硬的维稳，不是为了社会的真正稳定，更不是为了民众利益，而是因为变态而强硬的维稳， 是他们利益最大化的切实保证。
面对世界经济危机的袭击，许多国家裁减公务员，降低公务员的工资，以便与国民共渡时艰。但在中国却反起道而行之，不仅不裁减 公务员，而且加大公务员特别是警察的招收名额；不仅不减少公务员的工资，还给他们更多的寻租空间，以便让他们为自己的政权死心塌地卖力，哪怕公务员特别是 官员弄得民怨沸腾，也在所不惜。不思谋进行民主自由政治改革的政府，他们似乎乐观公务员和官员子弟的世袭化，在他们看来，这是保住他们“江山万万年”的不 二法门。但在我们民众看来，公务员世袭化也就是权力世袭化，是中国社会的一大灾难，这种灾难将会给中国社会带来不可预测的恶果。
Ran note: The controversy over “Rich 2G*” is yet to be over; the shock and anger that “Crown Prince Party” have caused in the public is gradually spreading across the country, a phenomenon that needs more discussion and attention from all sectors of society. To me, the problem is not just about the “Crown Prince Party”, it is also about government officials who have turned, through nepotism, civil service positions into heredity. In other words, civil servants as a most secure “iron rice bowl” during economic crisis is now hereditary, and the ratio of positions filled by favoritism is shockingly high. Below is a column I wrote forChina in Perspective, which explored the problems of heredity of civil service position, comments are welcome. (September 2, 2009, 7:46 in Chengdu)(* “Rich 2G”, Rich second generation, referring to Chinese people born into rich families after the 1980s.)
Heredity of Civil Service Positions, A Social Disaster
Not long ago, Time Weekly had a row with People.com over the statement that 91% of the country’s billionaires are children of top party officials. The former represented the voice from the people; the latter, the official. To me, the skeptical voice from the people sounded more rational and more believable, while the explanation from the official was weak and flimsy. There is a long history of the Crown Prince Party, with the massive power and influence they have, riding roughshod over political and economic activities in today’s China. As the saying goes, ice three feet thick result not from coldness of just one day. Theories of regime changes like “power comes from within the barrel of a gun” and “those who fought to rule the country shall reign” make it a certainty that the authorities see a regime as private belongings of one party, or one faction that no one else can encroach on. Peaceful, non-violent regime change by means of election is deeply resented by officials whose huge, unfair advantage would be affected by such change.
That the Crown Prince Party are inheriting dominance in political and economic sectors is very obvious. This too happens in less lucrative sectors like that of art and culture. That is to say, wherever interests exist, one can expect to spot ubiquitous snatching hands of the Crown Prince Party. Without real, effective system that can restrain them, government officials of lower levels would follow bad examples set by those in higher positions, and the hereditary culture of the Crown Prince Party has spread across all levels of governments, manifesting itself in the forms of parental nepotism and of bureaucrats using their powers to seek unjust advantages for their descendants. Last year in the city of Benxi three China Youth League cadres were promoted. They all are children of leadership of that city. After being questioned by the media and the public, Sun Mingdi, one of those offspring, argued that children of government officials too have the talent needed to succeed. Indeed they do, and they are very capable of success. The very fact that they were born to official families itself make them geniuses when compared to offspring of people in the street. What difference is there between this argument and Jus sanguinis?
Heredity of government official positions and civil service posts, and cheating during civil service examination was originally done secretly. Now these are done in broad daylight, oblivious to criticism from the public. In the past they needed to “serve the public” as a fig leaf, now they don’t need this anymore. For the huge potential benefits, they fight with their gloves off. One of the incidents that illustrates this happened during Huangshan civil service examination: officials arranged government vehicles to send their children to sit for it. Although they did sit for that examination, the fact that they got there on government vehicles raised eyebrows. These examinees had to be “different” even when it came to sitting for a civil service examination, without any worries that that would reveal their identity. And how passionate and daring the officials had been in protecting the unjust benefits of their children! Recently in Gushi county, Henan province, twelve cadres were appointed, most of them children of officials; minister of organisation came out and said, “our procedures are legal.” What did he mean by that? Who set those procedures? Who made those laws? Were they approved by the public? Do they have credibility? Children of current or out-going cadres are being blatantly handpicked to fill government positions, all the masses know is that it’s a result from officials conferring interests on one another, and that it’s a hereditary privilege. Where then is openness and fairness?
“People aspire to work in the government with the specific intention to seek personal gain, those in office act as if they are traders. (出仕专为身谋，居官有同贸易)” Recently it has revealed that at a county in Jiangxi province, children of parents who are chiefs at sub-division level can go straight into administrative unit to work; children of parents who are deputies at the same level can have bonus marks when they sit for examination; and children to parents who work in education department can work in school directly. These are outrageous. And there are cases more outrageous than these: one example is a chief work in collusion with businesses, forging permanent staff record for thirteen years old relatives so as to pocket the salary, and file for internal retirement when that relatives turned twenty-four (and continue to get monthly allowance from the “workplace”). Descendants of government officials who have certain level of capacity would get leading positions in the government without hindrance; those who are not so capable would have their records forged to collect money directly. Those descendants are most happy if they can have access to both power and money; those who have access to either money or power can use one to exchange for another perennially, and in so doing they ensure that their own offspring can continue to enjoy the privileges.
Given that civil service positions have become the hereditary domain of children to government officials or civil servants, maintaining stability of civil workforce would naturally become the basic policy. And since civil service have become the territory of civil servants’ offspring, they would of course make every effort to deprive the masses of their interests, and give top priority to maintaining stability, regardless of how that would abuse public power, or how conscienceless the measures are. These government officials and civil servants by inheritance resort to pathological and rigid measures to maintain stability not because they want real social stability, nor because they have the public’s interests in mind. It is because pathological and rigid measures to maintain stability can best ensure protection of their interests.
In this time of global economic crisis, governments in many countries have laid off civil servants, or lowered their salary so as to weather the storm with the general public. In China the exact opposite are being done: not only has there been no public servant downsizing, but also an increase in the recruitment quota of the civil workforce, particularly the police; and not only was there no reduction in salary of civil servants, but also more rent-seeking space has been provided for them. These are done to ensure the civil servants would continue to work hard for and remain loyal to this regime, regardless of the grievance the civil servants, especially government officials, may cause in the public. A government that has no appetite for democracy, liberty, and political reform seems happy that civil service positions become hereditary, as they see this to be the only way to continue their reign. To us, heredity of civil service positions is heredity of power, and that is a disaster for the Chinese society, a disaster that would bring unpredictable consequences.
Suggested further readings
1: Henan Gushi County Public Election Survey figureshttp://news.163.com/09/0828/01/5HP1K5A00001124J.html。
2: Henan County community and organisations department: 难道官员之后就无权当选干部么？http://bbs.chinanews.com.cn/thread-1134699-1-1.html。
August 29, 2009, morning in Chengdu